The charges are based on allegations of two boys ages 12 and 14.
The investigation was conducted by Third Judicial District Attorney General's Office investigator Teddy Collinsworth.
Attorney General Dan Armstrong told the Times-News on Monday no information could be released about the allegations except what was on the indictment, which states the crimes are alleged to have occurred this past July.
Calendine, 45, 261 Rivergate Manor, Rogersville, was arrested around 1 p.m. Monday at his medical practice in Rogersville and as of Monday afternoon was being held in the Hawkins County Jail on $50,000 bond.
Aside from being one of Rogersville's most beloved and respected pediatricians, Calendine is the founder of Rogersville-based "ProStrength & Speed" free youth fitness program.
He also made headlines in May 2016 when he contributed $10,000 to the reward fund for kidnapped third-grader Carlie Trent, a move that sparked other contributions and resulted in the reward growing to $40,000.
He was arrested in December 2016 for public intoxication at a Volunteer High School basketball game, and he was subsequently removed from his position as Cherokee High School football team physician and banned from county schools for two years.
This past May, Rogersville City School Board of Education agreed to contract with Calendine to provide school-based health clinic services for the 2017-18 school year.
RCS Director Rebecca Isaacs told the Times-News on Monday she was out of town and not aware of Calendine's arrest.
"Personnel from his office have been providing our clinic service, not Dr. Calendine personally," Isaacs said. "I will evaluate the situation when I return on Wednesday. As such, I do not have enough info to make any comment."
Aggravated sexual battery is a Class B felony punishable by 8-12 years if found guilty. Sexual battery by an authority figure is a Class C felony punishable by 3-6 years.
Calendine is scheduled for arraignment in Hawkins County Criminal Court on Aug. 31 at 9 a.m.